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The oil makes up about 30% of the mustard seeds. It can be produced from black mustard (Brassica nigra), brown Indian mustard (B. juncea), and white mustard (B. hirta). The characteristic pungent flavour of mustard oil is due to allyl isothiocyanate.
Ghee is prepared by simmering butter, which is churned from cream, skimming any impurities from the surface, and then pouring and retaining the clear, still liquid fat, while discarding the solid residue that settled on the bottom. Spices can be added for flavor. The texture, color, and taste of ghee depend on the quality of the butter, source of the milk used in the process and the duration of the boiling.
Mustard oil is popular as a cooking oil in northern India and Pakistan and the chief ingredient used in Bengali cuisine of Eastern India and Bangladesh. In the second half of the 20th century the popularity of mustard oil receded a bit in Northern India and Pakistan due to the availability of mass-produced vegetable oils. It is still intricately embedded in the culture.